**Closing Analysis of Symmetric Steel Cable-stayed Bridges and Estimation of Construction Error**

**Min Kwon Lee, Hae Sung Lee**

**ABSTRACT**

This paper presents the closing analysis of a symmetric steel cable-stayed bridge erected by a free cantilever method. Two independent structural systems are formed before the closing procedure of a bridge is performed, and thus the compatibility conditions for vertical displacement and rotational angle are not satisfied at the closing section without the application of proper sectional forces. Since, however, it is usually impossible to apply sectional forces at the closing section, the compatibility conditions should be satisfied by proper external forces that can be actually applicable to a bridge. Unstrained lengths of selected cables and the pull-up force of a derrick crane are adjusted to satisfy nonlinear compatibility conditions, which are solved iteratively by the Newton-Raphson method. Cable members are modeled by the elastic catenary cable elements, and towers and main girders are discretized by linear 3-D frame elements. The sensitivities of displacement with respect to the unstrained lengths of selected cables and the pull-up force of the derrick crane are evaluated by the direct differentiation of the equilibrium equation. A Monte-Carlo simulation approach is proposed to estimate expected construction errors for a given confidence level. The proposed method is applied to the second Jindo Grand Bridge to demonstrate its validity and effectiveness.

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